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Phonological Disorder

The main feature of the phonological disorder is the lack of smoothness and sound harmony expected in the speech of the person in accordance with his age, dialect and developmental period. These children cannot make the speech sounds they are expected to make.

Phonological Disorder

The main feature of the phonological disorder is the lack of smoothness and sound harmony expected in the speech of the person in accordance with his age, dialect and developmental period. These children cannot make the speech sounds they are expected to make. Dissonance and use of the voice may be in the form of incorrect emphasis and selection, or irregularities in arrangement (for example, the use of the "t" sound instead of the "k" sound). Some omissions can be made, such as not saying the consonants at the end.

 

Difficulties with making speech sounds interfere with school success, professional success, or social communication. The sounds that are most frequently made wrong are the sounds that are expected to improve with age, such as "ı, r, s, z, t, ç". However, mistakes can be made in vowels and consonants that should be learned in the early period in those who are younger or more severely affected. Limping speech, which is manifested by discursive whistling sounds, is particularly common.

 

Phonological disorder also includes errors in the ordering and selection of sounds in syllables and words. The disorder may be accompanied by hearing impairment, disorders in the structure of the mouth, tongue, lips and palate, neurological conditions, cognitive limitations, or psychological problems.

 

The rate of phonological disorders of unknown cause in pre-school period is 2.5%. It is more common in boys than girls. The incidence and severity of the disorder also vary depending on age. It usually becomes evident by the age of 4 years. While its incidence is 3-5% in pre-school period, it is 2% in school-age children. Approximately 2-3% of 6-7 year olds have moderate to severe phonological impairment, whereas milder frequency is higher. After the age of 17, this rate drops to 0.5%.

 

In severe phonological disorder, the child's speech may not be understood even by family members. Milder degrees of the disorder may not be recognized until the preschool or school setting, but may be understood by those outside the family. Spontaneous recovery is common in mild degrees where the cause is unknown. While evaluating the development of communicative skills, the culture and language structure of the person should be taken into account, especially for those who grew up in environments where two languages are valid.

 

Mental retardation (MR), hearing impairment or another sensory disorder, a speech-related motor disorder, and severe environmental deprivation may be associated with speech disorders. The presence of these problems can be determined by intelligence testing, audiometric testing, neurological testing, and clinical examination. In such cases, in order to add a diagnosis of phonological disorder, the difficulty in speaking is expected to be more than that accompanying these problems.

 

Problems limited to speech rhythm or voice should be treated as stuttering. If speech disorders are due to a lack of environmental stimulus, correcting the environmental problem may provide a rapid improvement in the child's speech.

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